The TO particle in Japanese

Learn now more about the particle TO in Japanese!

the japanese particle I'm is another particle well known to Japanese students. Its most common function is simply to put together lists of japanese nouns or even phrases.

particle to in japanese

unlike others japanese particles, the particle I'm always lists items in an objective way, indicating all the elements existing in a given situation.

Joining words with the particle to

To join words with the particle I'm, just add the particle between the words that make up the list.



have a dog and a cat under the table.



have apples and grapes on the table.

have red apples and green grapes on the table.


I speak (can speak) Japanese, Portuguese, Italian and Spanish.

Joining Japanese phrases with the particle to

the particle I'm has the ability to join two sentences together, turning them into a single Japanese sentence. Note that the particle I'm cannot join sentences from different periods (separated by a period) nor appear at the beginning of Japanese sentences.



The apples I bought and the grapes you bought they are on the table.

Contrast and comparison of words with the particle to

when the particle I'm appears between two Japanese nouns, it indicates a contrast or comparison between these two nouns. In such cases, the particle I'm can be translated as andorin between or expressions of the kind.



Which one should I buy, skim milk or common milk?


In between the summer and winter, there is a big difference in temperature.

Note that to know the correct meaning of the particle I'm It is necessary to understand the context of the sentence. When it's a question, usually I'm means or or in between. Otherwise, there is a strong tendency to I'm take on the meaning of and.

Fellowship with the Japanese particle to

In some sentences, when the particle I'm appears between nouns or pronouns, it indicates companionship and can be translated as with.



Yesterday I swam in the river with my brother.


Tomorrow and I will discuss this problem with the teacher/instructor.

Combining the particle to with Japanese verbs

One of the most interesting things I discovered about the particle I'm, is the fact that it can be combined with japanese verbs to express thoughts and actions of other people or about something.



I thought that yesterday was a holiday.


Is it over there said that don't believe in men.

The list of combinations below are the most commonly found in the Japanese language:

と話す (Tell, say that…)

と言う (Say that…)

と考える (Consider that…)

と思う (To think…)

と創造する (Imagine that…)

と分かる (Understand that…)


Although there are other more complex functions of the particle I'm, I tried to summarize the most basic and easy to understand. With this knowledge, it becomes easier to understand most everyday Japanese phrases.